A cause is conceptualized meta An effect is a change of state An Agent originates a cause an To understand the metaphor in Making you go somewhere else.. Possessions are objects or ent The Target Domain is what is b The Source Domain is opened by A client states, "Whenever I t Stopped, blocked... Difficulties are conceptualize

Contents

Force or Movement

A cause is conceptualized metaphorically as a Force, involving movement. It is conceptualized as a human or something able to apply force much as a human would.

See the Metaphor Cluster Moving/Locomotion for an expanded account of
Force - Motion - Causality.

Affected Party

An effect is a change of state of the Affected Entity and is conceptualized metaphorically as a movement of the Affected Entity to another Location or into or out of a bounded region
Examples: What would motivate him to cooperate? I think the award gave him a lift.

See Typical Metaphor Elements.

Agent

An Agent originates a cause and can be conceptualized metaphorically as a human or something able to apply force much as a human would
Examples: He brought it to a head; she pushed her plan; the attorney's comments sent a chill; his forecast projected prosperity for another year; can you give us a chance? his action takes away from his words).

See Typical Metaphor Elements.

Elements of Cause & Effect

To understand the metaphor in terms of cause and effect we proceed as before by uncovering incongruity in expression of the Target content. However, as we begin to identify the Source Domain, we will be attending also to aspects of the Source Domain which correspond to the elements of causal metaphors.

Causation is metaphorically understood as the application of physical force to produce
motion or change.

A cause is conceptualized metaphorically as a Force, involving movement
Examples: He was moved by the story; he moved ahead in class; what she said forced a showdown).

An Agent originates a cause and can be conceptualized metaphorically as a human or something able to apply force much as a human would
Examples: He brought it to a head; she pushed her plan; the attorney's comments sent a chill; his forecast projected prosperity for another year; can you give us a chance? his action takes away from his words).

An effect is a change of state of the Affected Entity and is conceptualized metaphorically as a movement of the Affected Entity to another Location or into or out of a bounded region
Examples: What would motivate him to cooperate? I think the award gave him a lift.

Agents, Affected Entities, Locations and Possessions are often conceptualized metaphorically as Containers (bounded two- or three-dimensional spaces); containers have insides and outsides, have certain things, characteristics, dynamics inside as distinct from others outside, the "walls" of the container may be strong, weak, have windows, doors, etc., containers may be light, dark, deep, shallow, spacious, restricted, etc.
Examples: Single parenting took a lot out of him; she searched her memory; that crosses the line of acceptability.

See Event Sequence for additional understanding.

Locations

He pushes me in new direction

Making you go somewhere else...

Possessions

Possessions are objects or entities acquired or lost (things or objects which can be brought to, given to, carried away, taken away from the Affected Entity).

Identify if objects or possessions are moving toward or away from someone.

See the Metaphor Cluster Objects/Structuring to get a broader account of Possessions.

Target Domain

The Target Domain is what is being focused on now. What is of concern is within this domain - the situation you face now.

Source Domain

The Source Domain is opened by introducing a Metaphor. The Metaphor is "apt" to the degree that it has corresponding elements and relationships. Once this Source Domain is opened, transfer occurs back to the base space.

"He cuts me off"

A client states, "Whenever I try to say what I mean he cuts me off." A mediator may try to reorient this client in hopes of a more favorable adjustment. But befor attempting reorientation, first the mediator must know how the client is actually oriented now.

The mediator can look for hints in the client's language, because the client's operating metaphor may be revealed. Here we are particularly looking for how the client may see that the other party interferes with his/her self expression.

He blocks my path

Stopped, blocked...

Obstacles

Difficulties are conceptualized metaphorically as obstacles or impediments while moving; freedom is conceptualized metaphorically as no obstacles or impediments; enabling is absence or removal of obstacles.

Explore Obstacles or difficulties: What is slowing, burdening or stopping? Is something in the way?

Obstacles are different from locations or containers. Obstacles might be climbed over, moved away, etc.

A broader conceptualiztion of Obstacles can be found in the Metaphor Cluster Moving/Locomotion, particularly Ease/Obstructed.

Event Sequence

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Last modified: 2001-07-07 14:37:12