The Start up Process - e.g., i Get things lined up. The beginning of the start-up Continuation would be some fin The End of Start Up - e.g., yo Pause before beginning main ac Once this start-up phase is co In the Main Process you notice The Main Process - e.g., you b This is the action most readil The main process starts as spe The speaking or the words poin These are basic stages in any This alludes to McWhirter Orient (listen, look...).  Pre The Initial State - which may Stopped any previous actions o Prior to "hitting the nail on A common figurative, idiomatic Possible Continuation or Itera Additional strokes as needed t What constitutes a "complete m Possible Interruptions - e.g., The Agent doing the hammering The literal activity of hammer Not only must the nail penetra The end of the main process wo The Resultant State - satisfy

Contents

Startup

The Start up Process - e.g., in looking for a job you may locate the want ads and put them within reach.

Look at Nail, Raise Hammer

Get things lined up.

Mental Focus

The beginning of the start-up phase of the event involves some kind of attention paid to the subject or point, orienting to it, putting thoughts or words in some kind of suitable arrangement.

A kind of preparation for movement in a particular direction or towards a particular destination.

Question Satisfied?

Continuation would be some final connecting of parts or bringing the parts together to conclude the statement.

End Startup

The End of Start Up - e.g., you finish putting things into position.

Stop Momentarily

Pause before beginning main action

Ready to Speak

Once this start-up phase is complete, there is likely to be a pause or waiting for timing to be right. This happens before the movement begins.

Parts Connect?

Upset

In the Main Process you notice, reason, relate (to it) compare, compute, actively thinking how this is different, useful?

Mc Whirter: "If an experience is not to our liking, or is not what we expected (even pleasantly), our expectation and orientation to some degree is 'Upset.' Examples of limiting upsets are traumas, phobias, shocks, etc. Examples of positive [enhancing] upsets would be surprise parties, winning the lottery, an unexpected complement, etc."

Start Main Process

The Main Process - e.g., you begin searching, comparing, applying, etc.

The Startup part of the sequence has set up for the Main Process or, one might say, expected the Main Process to come next.

Downward Stroke

This is the action most readily focused upon, as the hammer is brought into contact with the nail, with force, and having been properly aimed.

Begin Speaking

The main process starts as speaking starts. This is the first actual step in the particular direction.

Making Sense?

The speaking or the words point a direction, "move" the listeners understanding by supplying information, making connections, organizing ideas or thoughts.

This could be interrupted if the listeners get distracted, don't "follow", etc. The speaker may be looking for signs that what is being said seems to make sense. With affirmative signs the speaker moves to a conclusion. With negative signs the speaker may make adjustments in direction, manner of movement, or stop and start another process.

Metaphoric Understanding

Event Sequence Stages

These are basic stages in any behavioral or cognitive event. They are assumed to be implicit in any metaphor, although not always obvious.

Set Up

This alludes to McWhirter's work. I am taking the liberty of grouping Lakoff and Johnson's (1999) seven stages of event sequence, first into a "Set Up".

Set-up - Upset - Set-down is the 3-step process underlying learning and experience. It is reiterative and sequential.

Set Up involves expectation and anticipation.

Previous experience sets us up for what is now to happen. It is based on previous experience that we know what startup process is needed, how to do it and end it. Fine distinctions may be made at this point which recognize new or different circumstances more readily.

Set Down

Orient (listen, look...). Prepare for next round.

McWhirter: "Experiences change our behavior by changing our model of the world. We may do this while we are experiencing, and any time afterwards. The changes can be considered to be what we 'Set-down' because of the experience. What we set-down in turn sets us up for the next experience and so onů"

This continuing process is self-organizing. It is influenced by structure already formed and other, often outside, influences.

Initial State

The Initial State - which may include coming to rest after a previous process, gaining a state of readiness or orientation.

Standing there

Stopped any previous actions or events.

Other Activity

Prior to "hitting the nail on the head", the speaker is located elsewhere or doing something else. Perhaps thinking or talking on the same or a different subject, but not yet making this particular point.

This previous activity stops.

"You Hit the Nail on the Head"

A common figurative, idiomatic expression in English.

Seems to refer to the end of the process, but actually alludes to a complex event sequence.

Continue?

Possible Continuation or Iteration - e.g., go back to the listings, make more calls, judge possibilities, take more interviews, etc.

If not interrupted and not yet complete the Main Process continues.

More Strokes Until In

Additional strokes as needed to move the nail to its final location.

Clear Enough?

Bodily Movement -- Event Sequence

What constitutes a "complete metaphor"? Often we hear fragments that suggest the existence of an operating metaphor of causation, but what might be the whole metaphor? The notion of the Event Structure is helpful here:

Lakoff and Johnson (1999) discuss causation from a theory based empirically on embodied cognition where force actually intervenes in events. For them, event structure is a homologue of thought-behavior and cause is only understood as human movement that, by definition, involves force of some greater or lesser magnitude.

Here we illustrate the correspondence between the event sequence (left figure in black), a simple, literal bodily act (middle figure in blue) and a figuratively described act (right figure in red). Note the sequence of each.

A metaphor often seems more focused than it actually may be. If we follow Lakoff and Johnson as we bring the metaphor process into conscious awareness this may involve examining all that is "embedded" in the movement which serves as the Source of a metaphor to try to find all seven steps in this sequence:

Seven-Stage Event Structure

The Initial State - which may include coming to rest after a previous process, gaining a state of readiness or orientation.

The Start up Process - e.g., in looking for a job you may locate the want ads and put them within reach.

The End of Start Up - e.g., you finish putting things into position.

The Main Process - e.g., you begin searching, comparing, applying, etc.

Possible Interruptions - e.g., you may get a headache, take a break, inherit a fortune, etc.

Possible Continuation or Iteration - e.g., go back to the listings, make more calls, judge possibilities, take more interviews, etc.

The Resultant State - satisfy expectation, stop iterations.

This sequence characterizes how humans move their bodies as well as how events in general are structured.

Interruptions?

Possible Interruptions - e.g., you may get a headache, take a break, inherit a fortune, etc.

If the expected course of the Main Process is interrupted, one might say that it is "upset".

Nail Going In?

The Agent doing the hammering will observe if the nail was properly hit and is going into the material.

Listeners Listening?

Hitting a Nail on the Head

The literal activity of hammering a nail into materials that are intended to be fastened together.

Flush, Fastened

Not only must the nail penetrate fully, but engage with the materials in such a way as to fasten material together.

Conclusion Fits

The end of the main process would be when the parts of what was said fit together, seem to go together, make a coherent arrangement. In so doing, they bring the discussion and the listeners to a "place" different than at the start. This "place" might be referred to as a different point of view or position from which other things can now be seen, said or done.


Alternatively, the process could be a bringing of something to the listener (a sound argumanet, judgment or conclusion that the listener wants), or taking something away (depriving listener of a certain conclusion or judgment, or giving a negative judgment). (Taking something away corresponds to what happens when you hit the nail on the head and the material, instead of being fastened and strong, instead separates, splits or falls apart.)

Next

Literal Behavioral Act

Resultant State

The Resultant State - satisfy expectation, stop iterations.

The Resultant State reached after an interruption or something not going according to the Set Up or expectations may result in a "SetDown" that restructures the whole sequence so it operates somewhat differently the next time.

Axon File: c:\axon2002\metares\bodysequence.xon
Last modified: 2001-07-07 14:40:01